BHARAT KE SHAHID

INDIA’S ACHIEVEMENTS IN SPACE

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India’s progress in space has been very systematic starting with experimental satellites like Aryabhatta, Bhaskara, Apple and Rohini. It performed satellite application experiments like SITE, STEP and Apple application programme. The operational space services consist of INSAT system and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS). The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) made a modest beginning in launch vehicles like SLV-3, and ASLV. The first development flight of the indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was carried out in 1992 which could put 1,000 kg class remote sensing satellite into 900 km polar sun-synchronous orbit.

India has acquired eminence in world class space science. It has mastered modern space technology and its various applications for the benefit of society. New space technology is being utilised for telecommunications, television broadcasts, weather watch and for providing information relating to agriculture, forests, water resources and minerals to mention a few.

In the past three decades ISRO has built an infrastructure sector of space programme – construction and operation of satellites and their launch vehicles, ground station and sensors. ISRO has also collaborated with other Indian institutions and over 250 private industries. Both private and public sectors manufacture a vanity of equipment and materials – light alloy structure for inter-stages, motor cases, liquid thrusters, propellant tanks, gas generation and electronic packages. The second launch facility at Sriharikota at a cost of Rs.280 crore is under construction.

Launch Business

In May last year ISRO embarked on the launch business through PSLV-C2 launch, thereby creating a strong impact on the global space market by successfully launching two foreign satellites along with its own ocean monitoring remote sensing satellite. They were launched by the PSLV. ISRO’s marketing agency Autrix Corporation has entered the world market with great success. It aims to secure about 20 per cent of the global share of remote sensing products. It is gratifying to note that PSLV with certain modifications can put payloads up to 4,000 kg into low earth orbits (LEO’s) and up to 800 kg into geo-synchronous transfer orbits (GTO’s).

So far India has been dependent on Ariane Space, the French space agency, for launching its satellites. But gradually ISRO is trying to make use of its own launching vehicles. Sriharikota’s proximity to the equator gives it a better payload advantage for any polar launch. The flight of INSAT-3B, INSAT-3A and the GSLV will take ISRO into higher orbit. Once the GSLV is declared operational, India’s future INSAT satellites will be launched by this rocket.

Reduced Costs

The Chairman of ISRO, Dr K Kasturirangan has projected a significant lowering of space launch costs in the country in the next few decades. While the cost for positioning one kg of material in space today was $20,000 it was presaged that the same would come down to $5000 by 2007 and as low as $500 per kg between 2030-2050. Fully reusable vehicles have also been foreseen. He reveals hat the performance efficiency of Indian spacecraft is on the increase.

According to Aerospace America, Indian remote sensing commercial satellites are among the best in the world. IRS-1C and IRS-ID provide the best high resolution data to the user community anywhere in the world and the data from these satellites are being received and used by several countries including the US, Japan, Germany, Korea, Thailand and Dubai.

India has now established credibility as a space technology vendor. The world’s largest satellite manufacturer in the US has ordered satellite hardware worth US $700,000 from India. India’s space technology export earnings have tripled from around Rs.10 crore to Rs.30 crore over the past three years.

INSAT-3B

Recently, ISRO launched the first of the third generation communication satellite INSAT-3B. This 2,070 kg satellite is primarily intended for business, development and mobile communications. It would almost double the transponder capacity. It would provide the first set of transponders for interactive training and developmental communications as part of the Vidya Vahini programme announced by the Prime Minister.

Indian space scientists are now engaged in the development of cryogenic engine, required for GSLV in future. Last February the test of first home-made cryogenic rocket engine was carried out but a hydrogen leak probably led to premature termination of the test. But scientists say the problem will soon be solved. The test was carried out at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu.

Experts agree that India crossed an important milestone in the development of indigenous cryogenic upper stage for GSLV. The engine had employed liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. This short duration test proved that many operations were successful which were done for the first time. Valuable data have been collected which are being analysed for further tests.

Towards Moon

Coming on the heels of all these developments is ISRO’s plan to go to the moon. ISRO has already begun preliminary studies to assess the feasibility of undertaking such a mission. ISRO’s satellite centre director, Dr P S Goel, says the study will cover scientific benefits which could be derived from the lunar mission. ISRO’s PSLV is a proven rocket and is capable of flying up to the lunar orbit. If India’s mission to the moon succeeds, then it would have joined the US and the former Soviet Union in making its presence felt in the lunar environment.

ISRO is also planning to launch a series of remote sensing satellites with a variety of applications including one solely dedicated to the field of astronomy.

Indian space scientists foresee several developments in the new millennium when they can scale new heights. Revolutionary developments in the fields of communication, information and micro- electronics are driving greater convergence and forging new directions for aerospace programmes. "Space would be a strong tool for development in future" sys Dr Kasturirangan. He is of the view that from development of civil applications such as personal mobile communications at a global level and management of natural disasters to futuristic vistas such as space power generation and space tourism the new possibilities are unlimited.



India’s experience has clearly shown that the investment in space always pays through remote sensing and telecommunications. By being fully self-reliant in space activities, it is certain that the resulting contribution from the space programme to the Indian GDP will be markedly significant.

Swatantrata Sainik Samman Pension: Clarification on admissibility of DR from July, 2016

Swatantrata Sainik Samman Pension: Clarification on admissibility of DR from July, 2016

U.K. website releases papers of day before Bose plane crash

The latest documents on www.bosefiles.info, launched by U.K-based independent journalist and Netaji’s grandnephew Ashis Ray, trace his movements on the day before his plane crashed in Taiwan on August 18, 1945. | THE HINDU

Britain-based independent journalist and Bose’s grandnephew Ashis Ray launches www.bosefiles.info

A U.K.-based website set up to chart the last days of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose has released documents relating to the day before his plane crashed in August 1945.

The latest documents on www.bosefiles.info, launched by U.K-based independent journalist and Bose’s grandnephew Ashis Ray, trace his movements on the day before his plane crashed in Taiwan on August 18, 1945.

Arrival in Saigon

The website citing documents said that on August 17, 1945, Bose departed Bangkok and arrived in Saigon before midday. Several Indian and Japanese witnesses testified this to the 1956 Netaji Inquiry Committee headed by Major General Shah Nawaz Khan, among them S.A. Ayer and Debnath Das of the Provisional Government of Free India and Colonel Habib ur Rahman of the Indian National Army (INA) — both headed by Bose.

Maj. Gen. Bhonsle, INA’s chief of staff, who was later interrogated by British military intelligence, concurred that Bose left Bangkok for Saigon on the morning of August 17, 1945.

In Saigon, though, in the immediate aftermath of Japan’s surrender in World War II a couple of days earlier — when this country’s military headquarters were in a state of confusion — no plane was straightaway available to carry Bose to North-East Asia, as was the plan.

Ultimately, General Isoda of Hikari Kikan, the liaison body between Japanese authorities and the PGFI and INA, conveyed to Bose that only two seats would be available on a plane heading for Tokyo.

Not many to accompany him

This meant a majority of his advisers and officers would not be able to accompany him.

According to the deposition of Colonel Pritam Singh of the INA to the Inquiry Committee, Bose was advised to accept the offer.

He selected his ADC Col. Rahman to go with him. Before the flight took off, there was an issue of the aircraft being overloaded. The Committee recorded that Bose “discarded a part of his baggage containing books, clothes, etc.”

Lt. Gen. Shidei flew with him

Among the Japanese passengers on board was Lt. Gen. Shidei, a distinguished officer who was on his way to Manchuria in China near the Soviet border to take command of the Japanese forces there.

“General Shidei was supposed to be an expert on Russian affairs in the Japanese Army and was considered to be a key man for negotiations with Russia. It was suggested that Netaji should accompany him to Manchuria,” Negishi, a Japanese interpreter attached to Bose’s headquarters, told the Shah Nawaz Committee.

Agreed to go to Manchuria

Therefore, it appears to have been agreed that Bose would go to Dairen, in Manchuria, with Gen Shidei.

Lt. Col. Shiro Nonogaki, an Air Staff Officer of the Japanese Army, who was also one of the passengers, independently corroborated to the Committee: “The plane was scheduled to carry General Shidei to Manchuria. Netaji agreed to go with him to Dairen in Manchuria.”

Plane belonged to Japanese Air Force

The plane was a 97-2 (Sally) twin-engine heavy bomber belonging to the Japanese Air Force. The route charted for it was: Saigon-Heito-Taipei-Dairen-Tokyo.

But because of the delay in departure from Saigon, the pilot decided on an unscheduled halt for the night at Tourane on the Indo-China coast instead of going as previously planned all the way to Taiwan.

13 to 14on board

There were an estimated 13 to14 persons on board — Bose and Rahman and the rest of them Japanese.

Rahman described to the Committee: “Immediately behind the pilot was sitting Netaji, and nobody opposite to him, as the space was restricted by the petrol tanks. I was sitting immediately behind Netaji. The co-pilot’s seat occupied by Lt. Gen. Shidei was offered to Netaji, but he did not accept, as it was too small for him.”

Likely, it was overloaded

When taking off at Saigon, the plane needed almost the entire length of the runway to get airborne. This suggested it was still overloaded.

Therefore, on arrival in Tourane, the crew and other Japanese officers off-loaded “no fewer than 12 anti-aircraft machine-guns” and ammunition as well as other baggage, the Inquiry Committee noted, which reportedly reduced the weight by 600 kilos.

In Tourane, Bose spent the night at a hotel, probably Hotel Morin, the website said citing documents.

The remaining future revelations on the site aim to lay the facts behind the plane crash the next day that is believed to have killed Netaji, the website said

 Source - the Hindu


भगत सिंह के फासी के 3 घंटे पहले का ऐतिहासिक किस्सा


Dainik amrish samachar bulletin

23 मार्च का दिन उन आम दिनों की तरह ही शुरू हुआ जब सुबह के समय राजनीतिक बंदियों को उनके बैरक से बाहर निकाला जाता था। आम तौर पर वे दिन भर बाहर रहते थे और सूरज ढलने के बाद वापस अपने बैरकों में चले जाते थे। लेकिन आज वार्डन चरत सिंह शाम करीब चार बजे ही सभी कैदियों को अंदर जाने को कह रहा था। सभी हैरान थे, आज इतनी जल्दी क्यों। पहले तो वार्डन की डांट के बावजूद सूर्यास्त के काफी देर बाद तक वे बाहर रहते थे। लेकिन आज वह आवाज काफी कठोर और दृढ़ थी। उन्होंने यह नहीं बताया कि क्यों? बस इतना कहा, ऊपर से ऑर्डर है।

चरत सिंह द्वारा क्रांतिकारियों के प्रति नरमी और माता-पिता की तरह देखभाल उन्हें दिल तक छू गई थी। वे सभी उसकी इज्जत करते थे। इसलिए बिना किसी बहस के सभी आम दिनों से चार घंटे पहले ही अपने-अपने बैरकों में चले गए। लेकिन सभी कौतूहल से सलाखों के पीछे से झांक रहे थे। तभी उन्होंने देखा बरकत नाई एक के बाद कोठरियों में जा रहा था और बता रहा था कि आज भगत सिंह, राजगुरु और सुखदेव को फांसी पर चढ़ा दिया जाएगा।

हमेशा की तरह मुस्कुराने वाला बरकत आज काफी उदास था। सभी कैदी खामोश थे, कोई कुछ भी बात नहीं कर पा रहा था। सभी अपनी कोठरियों के बाहर से जाते रास्ते की ओर देख रहे थे। वे उम्मीद कर रहे थे कि शायद इसी रास्ते से भगत सिंह और उनके साथी गुजरेंगे।

फांसी के दो घंटे पहले भगत सिंह के वकील मेहता को उनसे मिलने की इजाजत मिल गई। उन्होंने अपने मुवक्किल की आखिरी इच्छा जानने की दरखास्त की थी और उसे मान लिया गया। भगत सिंह अपनी कोठरी में ऐसे आगे-पीछे घूम रहे थे जैसे कि पिंजरे में कोई शेर घूम रहा हो। उन्होंने मेहता का मुस्कुराहट के साथ स्वागत किया और उनसे पूछा कि क्या वे उनके लिए 'दि रेवोल्यूशनरी लेनिन' नाम की किताब लाए हैं। भगत सिंह ने मेहता से इस किताब को लाने का अनुरोध किया था। जब मेहता ने उन्हें किताब दी, वे बहुत खुश हुए और तुरंत पढ़ना शुरू कर दिया, जैसे कि उन्हें मालूम था कि उनके पास वक्त ज्यादा नहीं है। मेहता ने उनसे पूछा कि क्या वे देश को कोई संदेश देना चाहेंगे, अपनी निगाहें किताब से बिना हटाए भगत सिंह ने कहा, मेरे दो नारे उन तक पहुंचाएं..इंकलाब जिंदाबाद, साम्राज्यवाद मुर्दाबाद। मेहता ने भगत सिंह से पूछा आज तुम कैसे हो? उन्होंने कहा, हमेशा की तरह खुश हूं। मेहता ने फिर पूछा, तुम्हें किसी चीज की इच्छा है? भगत सिंह ने कहा, हां मैं दुबारा इस देश में पैदा होना चाहता हूं ताकि इसकी सेवा कर सकूं। भगत ने कहा, पंडित नेहरू और सुभाष चंद्र बोस ने जो रुचि उनके मुकदमे में दिखाई उसके लिए दोनों का धन्यवाद करें।

मेहता के जाने के तुरंत बाद अधिकारियों ने भगत सिंह और उनके साथियों को बताया कि उन्हें फांसी का समय 11 घंटा घटाकर कल सुबह छह बजे की बजाए आज साम सात बजे कर दिया गया है। भगत सिंह ने मुश्किल से किताब के कुछ पन्ने ही पढ़े थे। उन्होंने कहा, क्या आप मुझे एक अध्याय पढ़ने का भी वक्त नहीं देंगे? बदले में अधिकारी ने उनसे फांसी के तख्ते की तरफ चलने को कहा। एक-एक करके तीनों का वजन किया गया। फिर वे नहाए और कपड़े पहने। वार्डन चतर सिंह ने भगत सिंह के कान में कहा, वाहे गुरु से प्रार्थना कर ले। वे हंसे और कहा, मैंने पूरी जिंदगी में भगवान को कभी याद नहीं किया, बल्कि दुखों और गरीबों की वजह से कोसा जरूर हूं। अगर अब मैं उनसे माफी मांगूगा तो वे कहेंगे कि यह डरपोक है जो माफी चाहता है क्योंकि इसका अंत करीब आ गया है।

तीनों के हाथ बंधे थे और वे संतरियों के पीछे एक-दूसरे से ठिठोली करते हुए सूली की तरफ बढ़ रहे थे। उन्होंने फिर गाना शुरू कर दिया-'कभी वो दिन भी आएगा कि जब आजाद हम होंगे, ये अपनी ही जमीं होगी ये अपना आसमां होगा। शहीदों की चिताओं पर लगेंगे हर बरस मेले, वतन पर मिटने वालों का बाकी यही नाम-ओ-निशां होगा।'
जेल की घड़ी में साढ़े छह बज रहे थे। कैदियों ने थोड़ी दूरी पर, भारी जूतों की आवाज और जाने-पहचाने गीत, 'सरफरोशी की तमन्ना अब हमारे दिल में है' की आवाज सुनी। उन्होंने एक और गीत गाना शुरू कर दिया, 'माई रंग दे मेरा बसंती चोला' और इसके बाद वहां 'इंकलाब जिंदाबाद' और 'हिंदुस्तान आजाद हो' के नारे लगने लगे। सभी कैदी भी जोर-जोर से नारे लगाने लगे।
तीनों को फांसी के तख्ते तक ले जाया गया। भगत सिंह बीच में थे। तीनों से आखिरी इच्छा पूछी गई तो भगत सिंह ने कहा वे आखिरी बार दोनों साथियों से गले लगना चाहते हैं और ऐसा ही हुआ। फिर तीनों ने रस्सी को चूमा और अपने गले में खुद पहन लिए। फिर उनके हाथ-पैर बांध दिए गए। जल्लाद ने ठीक शाम 7:33 बजे रस्सी खींच दी और उनके पैरों के नीचे से तख्ती हटा दी गई। उनके दुर्बल शरीर काफी देर तक सूली पर लटकते रहे।

SOURCE - FACEBOOK

आजादी की लड़ाई - नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस

नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस अपनी सेना आजाद हिंद फौज के साथ।

नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस अपनी सेना आजाद हिंद फौज के साथ।
आजादी की लड़ाई के दौरान नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस।

आजादी की लड़ाई के दौरान नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस।
आजादी की लड़ाई के दौरान नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस महात्मा गांधी के साथ।

आजादी की लड़ाई के दौरान नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस महात्मा गांधी के साथ।

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