KNOW ABOUT - भारतीय संविधान के बारे में 10 महत्वपूर्ण बातें

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भारतीय संविधान (Indian constitution) यानी विश्व के सबसे बड़े लोकतंत्र का धर्मग्रंथ। इसी‍ किताब से भारतीय लोकतंत्र संचालित होता है। आइए जानते हैं, अपने संविधान के बारे में 10 महत्वपूर्ण बातें

भारत राज्यों का संघ : भारत राज्‍यों का एक संघ है। य‍ह संसदीय प्रणाली की सरकार वाला एक स्‍वतंत्र प्रभुसत्ता सम्‍पन्‍न समाजवादी लोकतंत्रात्‍मक गणराज्‍य है। यह गणराज्‍य भारत के संविधान के अनुसार शासित है, जिसे संविधान सभा द्वारा 26 नवम्‍बर 1949 को ग्रहण किया गया तथा जो 26 जनवरी 1950 को लागू हुआ।

सुभाषचन्द्र बोस - एक जीवन परिचय

सुभाष चन्द्र बोस

सुभाषचन्द्र बोस - एक जीवन परिचय के लिए इमेज परिणाम

सुभाषचन्द्र बोस (भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम के अग्रणी सेनानी) का पोर्टेट उनके हस्ताक्षर सहित

जन्म - 23 जनवरी 1897
कटक, बंगाल प्रेसीडेंसी का ओड़िसा डिवीजन, ब्रितानी राज
मृत्यु -18 अगस्त 1945 ( विवादित )
राष्ट्रीयता - भारतीय
जातीयता -  बंगाली 
शिक्षा - बी०ए० (आनर्स)
शिक्षा -  कलकत्ता विश्वविद्यालय 
पदवी - अध्यक्ष भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस(1938), सुप्रीम कमाण्डर आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज
राजनैतिक पार्टी - भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस 1921–1940,
फॉरवर्ड ब्लॉक - 1939–1940
धार्मिक मान्यता - हिन्दू
जीवनसाथी - एमिली शेंकल (1937 में विवाह किन्तु जनता को 1993 में पता चला)
बच्चे - अनिता बोस फाफ
माता-पिता - जानकीनाथ बोस, प्रभावती देवी
भाई -  शरतचन्द्र बोस 
भतीजा - शिशिर कुमार बोस 

पंद्रह अगस्त 1947 की सुबह का अखबार

पंद्रह अगस्त 1947 की सुबह का अखबार


India’s progress in space has been very systematic starting with experimental satellites like Aryabhatta, Bhaskara, Apple and Rohini. It performed satellite application experiments like SITE, STEP and Apple application programme. The operational space services consist of INSAT system and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS). The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) made a modest beginning in launch vehicles like SLV-3, and ASLV. The first development flight of the indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was carried out in 1992 which could put 1,000 kg class remote sensing satellite into 900 km polar sun-synchronous orbit.

India has acquired eminence in world class space science. It has mastered modern space technology and its various applications for the benefit of society. New space technology is being utilised for telecommunications, television broadcasts, weather watch and for providing information relating to agriculture, forests, water resources and minerals to mention a few.

In the past three decades ISRO has built an infrastructure sector of space programme – construction and operation of satellites and their launch vehicles, ground station and sensors. ISRO has also collaborated with other Indian institutions and over 250 private industries. Both private and public sectors manufacture a vanity of equipment and materials – light alloy structure for inter-stages, motor cases, liquid thrusters, propellant tanks, gas generation and electronic packages. The second launch facility at Sriharikota at a cost of Rs.280 crore is under construction.

Launch Business

In May last year ISRO embarked on the launch business through PSLV-C2 launch, thereby creating a strong impact on the global space market by successfully launching two foreign satellites along with its own ocean monitoring remote sensing satellite. They were launched by the PSLV. ISRO’s marketing agency Autrix Corporation has entered the world market with great success. It aims to secure about 20 per cent of the global share of remote sensing products. It is gratifying to note that PSLV with certain modifications can put payloads up to 4,000 kg into low earth orbits (LEO’s) and up to 800 kg into geo-synchronous transfer orbits (GTO’s).

So far India has been dependent on Ariane Space, the French space agency, for launching its satellites. But gradually ISRO is trying to make use of its own launching vehicles. Sriharikota’s proximity to the equator gives it a better payload advantage for any polar launch. The flight of INSAT-3B, INSAT-3A and the GSLV will take ISRO into higher orbit. Once the GSLV is declared operational, India’s future INSAT satellites will be launched by this rocket.

Reduced Costs

The Chairman of ISRO, Dr K Kasturirangan has projected a significant lowering of space launch costs in the country in the next few decades. While the cost for positioning one kg of material in space today was $20,000 it was presaged that the same would come down to $5000 by 2007 and as low as $500 per kg between 2030-2050. Fully reusable vehicles have also been foreseen. He reveals hat the performance efficiency of Indian spacecraft is on the increase.

According to Aerospace America, Indian remote sensing commercial satellites are among the best in the world. IRS-1C and IRS-ID provide the best high resolution data to the user community anywhere in the world and the data from these satellites are being received and used by several countries including the US, Japan, Germany, Korea, Thailand and Dubai.

India has now established credibility as a space technology vendor. The world’s largest satellite manufacturer in the US has ordered satellite hardware worth US $700,000 from India. India’s space technology export earnings have tripled from around Rs.10 crore to Rs.30 crore over the past three years.


Recently, ISRO launched the first of the third generation communication satellite INSAT-3B. This 2,070 kg satellite is primarily intended for business, development and mobile communications. It would almost double the transponder capacity. It would provide the first set of transponders for interactive training and developmental communications as part of the Vidya Vahini programme announced by the Prime Minister.

Indian space scientists are now engaged in the development of cryogenic engine, required for GSLV in future. Last February the test of first home-made cryogenic rocket engine was carried out but a hydrogen leak probably led to premature termination of the test. But scientists say the problem will soon be solved. The test was carried out at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu.

Experts agree that India crossed an important milestone in the development of indigenous cryogenic upper stage for GSLV. The engine had employed liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. This short duration test proved that many operations were successful which were done for the first time. Valuable data have been collected which are being analysed for further tests.

Towards Moon

Coming on the heels of all these developments is ISRO’s plan to go to the moon. ISRO has already begun preliminary studies to assess the feasibility of undertaking such a mission. ISRO’s satellite centre director, Dr P S Goel, says the study will cover scientific benefits which could be derived from the lunar mission. ISRO’s PSLV is a proven rocket and is capable of flying up to the lunar orbit. If India’s mission to the moon succeeds, then it would have joined the US and the former Soviet Union in making its presence felt in the lunar environment.

ISRO is also planning to launch a series of remote sensing satellites with a variety of applications including one solely dedicated to the field of astronomy.

Indian space scientists foresee several developments in the new millennium when they can scale new heights. Revolutionary developments in the fields of communication, information and micro- electronics are driving greater convergence and forging new directions for aerospace programmes. "Space would be a strong tool for development in future" sys Dr Kasturirangan. He is of the view that from development of civil applications such as personal mobile communications at a global level and management of natural disasters to futuristic vistas such as space power generation and space tourism the new possibilities are unlimited.

India’s experience has clearly shown that the investment in space always pays through remote sensing and telecommunications. By being fully self-reliant in space activities, it is certain that the resulting contribution from the space programme to the Indian GDP will be markedly significant.

U.K. website releases papers of day before Bose plane crash

The latest documents on, launched by U.K-based independent journalist and Netaji’s grandnephew Ashis Ray, trace his movements on the day before his plane crashed in Taiwan on August 18, 1945. | THE HINDU

Britain-based independent journalist and Bose’s grandnephew Ashis Ray launches

A U.K.-based website set up to chart the last days of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose has released documents relating to the day before his plane crashed in August 1945.

The latest documents on, launched by U.K-based independent journalist and Bose’s grandnephew Ashis Ray, trace his movements on the day before his plane crashed in Taiwan on August 18, 1945.

Arrival in Saigon

The website citing documents said that on August 17, 1945, Bose departed Bangkok and arrived in Saigon before midday. Several Indian and Japanese witnesses testified this to the 1956 Netaji Inquiry Committee headed by Major General Shah Nawaz Khan, among them S.A. Ayer and Debnath Das of the Provisional Government of Free India and Colonel Habib ur Rahman of the Indian National Army (INA) — both headed by Bose.

Maj. Gen. Bhonsle, INA’s chief of staff, who was later interrogated by British military intelligence, concurred that Bose left Bangkok for Saigon on the morning of August 17, 1945.

In Saigon, though, in the immediate aftermath of Japan’s surrender in World War II a couple of days earlier — when this country’s military headquarters were in a state of confusion — no plane was straightaway available to carry Bose to North-East Asia, as was the plan.

Ultimately, General Isoda of Hikari Kikan, the liaison body between Japanese authorities and the PGFI and INA, conveyed to Bose that only two seats would be available on a plane heading for Tokyo.

Not many to accompany him

This meant a majority of his advisers and officers would not be able to accompany him.

According to the deposition of Colonel Pritam Singh of the INA to the Inquiry Committee, Bose was advised to accept the offer.

He selected his ADC Col. Rahman to go with him. Before the flight took off, there was an issue of the aircraft being overloaded. The Committee recorded that Bose “discarded a part of his baggage containing books, clothes, etc.”

Lt. Gen. Shidei flew with him

Among the Japanese passengers on board was Lt. Gen. Shidei, a distinguished officer who was on his way to Manchuria in China near the Soviet border to take command of the Japanese forces there.

“General Shidei was supposed to be an expert on Russian affairs in the Japanese Army and was considered to be a key man for negotiations with Russia. It was suggested that Netaji should accompany him to Manchuria,” Negishi, a Japanese interpreter attached to Bose’s headquarters, told the Shah Nawaz Committee.

Agreed to go to Manchuria

Therefore, it appears to have been agreed that Bose would go to Dairen, in Manchuria, with Gen Shidei.

Lt. Col. Shiro Nonogaki, an Air Staff Officer of the Japanese Army, who was also one of the passengers, independently corroborated to the Committee: “The plane was scheduled to carry General Shidei to Manchuria. Netaji agreed to go with him to Dairen in Manchuria.”

Plane belonged to Japanese Air Force

The plane was a 97-2 (Sally) twin-engine heavy bomber belonging to the Japanese Air Force. The route charted for it was: Saigon-Heito-Taipei-Dairen-Tokyo.

But because of the delay in departure from Saigon, the pilot decided on an unscheduled halt for the night at Tourane on the Indo-China coast instead of going as previously planned all the way to Taiwan.

13 to 14on board

There were an estimated 13 to14 persons on board — Bose and Rahman and the rest of them Japanese.

Rahman described to the Committee: “Immediately behind the pilot was sitting Netaji, and nobody opposite to him, as the space was restricted by the petrol tanks. I was sitting immediately behind Netaji. The co-pilot’s seat occupied by Lt. Gen. Shidei was offered to Netaji, but he did not accept, as it was too small for him.”

Likely, it was overloaded

When taking off at Saigon, the plane needed almost the entire length of the runway to get airborne. This suggested it was still overloaded.

Therefore, on arrival in Tourane, the crew and other Japanese officers off-loaded “no fewer than 12 anti-aircraft machine-guns” and ammunition as well as other baggage, the Inquiry Committee noted, which reportedly reduced the weight by 600 kilos.

In Tourane, Bose spent the night at a hotel, probably Hotel Morin, the website said citing documents.

The remaining future revelations on the site aim to lay the facts behind the plane crash the next day that is believed to have killed Netaji, the website said

 Source - the Hindu


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